We often hear people saying “this research study proved that…” Well, researchers never **prove** anything when testing hypotheses. We do collect evidence that may or may not support our claims. In a well-designed research study in which the null hypothesis (H0) is rejected, all that can be said is that empirical evidence was collected to support the formulated alternative hypothesis.

Karl Popper (as cited here) said, ‘All swans are white cannot be proved true by any number of observations of white swan – we might have failed to spot a black swan somewhere – but it can be shown false by a single authentic sighting of a black swan. Scientific theories of this universal form, therefore, can never be conclusively verified, though it may be possible to falsify them.’

Source: Is it possible to prove a research hypothesis? | ellies1mpson


The video below shows how to change tables in SPSS to comply with the APA Style.

Full disclosure: I often use a Mac at work but occasionally find myself in need of jumping into Windows. I’m running Windows 10 via Boot Camp.

In this article, I’ll address one particular issue common (I believe) to anyone who often switches between a Mac and a PC. It has to do with the differences in layout between a Mac and a Windows’ keyboard. The layout of a Mac’s keyboard isn’t set up to work with Windows, but there is a solution for this problem. Just keep on reading!

The main issue, at least for me, has to do with “shortcuts”. For example, when “cutting and paste” on a Mac, we use Command+c and Command+v. When using a Mac keyboard on Windows, the layout is different: Control+c and Control+v.

Since I switch between the two operating systems quite often, confusion is a common event. This confusion is explained by behaviour psychologists, and more recently by motor control and learning experts. The term is called negative transfer of learning, and it can be explained by the cognitive confusion theory. In this case, confusion happens due to the unfamiliarity of the keyboard. Note that the problem here is not related with limb control. You already know how to strike the keys in a sequence. The problem is the unfamiliar location of the keys. To avoid this confusion, one can remap Windows keyboard shortcuts in Boot Camp on a Mac. Follow the link below to get this set up on your Mac.

Source: How to Remap Windows Keyboard Shortcuts in Boot Camp on a Mac


The excerpt below is from BMJ and may be used as reference when the intention is to write research manuscripts describing pilot data.

Articles reporting pilot studies should explain the work’s wider context and explain why the term ‘pilot study’ applies. The term ‘pilot study’ should not be applied to justify reporting a small-scale study. Justifications for a pilot study include: trialling a new procedure intended for use in a larger programme of research, establishing power calculations required for a full-scale study, establishing how many patients and/or healthcare professionals can be recruited, evaluating the financial, technical, administrative or logistic feasibility of a full-scale study, including issues of data collection, protocol adherence, and questionnaire design. The sample/patient size should still be justified. The article should explain the impact that the pilot study had on decisions regarding future research.


Kinovea is a video player for all sport enthusiasts.Slow down, study and comment the technique of your athletes or of yourself.It is 100% free and open source. Unfortunately, the Mac version is yet to be released.

via Kinovea.

The video in this post was developed by How2Stats and is very informative in demonstrating how to test the difference between two percentages in SPSS. Watch Video

Transfer of learning is a fundamental topic in any motor learning introductory course. This article attempts to shed light on the neural correlates associated with learning. Good read…

Recent studies on the neural bases of sensorimotor adaptation demonstrate that the cerebellar and striatal thalamocortical pathways contribute to early learning. Transfer of learning involves a reduction in the contribution of early learning networks, and increased reliance on the cerebellum. The neural correlates of learning to learn remain to be determined, but likely involve enhanced functioning of general aspects of early learning.

via Neural Correlates of Motor

Surviving graduate school requires a certain set of skills. The good news is that these skills can be learned. If you are a graduate student or have plans to become one soon, this article is for you. Visit the link below to read the entire article.

As graduate adviser in my department for the past five years, I’ve distilled the advice I offer each fall to new graduate students down to six key lessons. Here is my crash course aimed at those of you just starting out now in M.A., M.F.A., or Ph.D. programs in the humanities and social sciences, and at those of you running orientation programs.

via Welcome to Graduate School – Advice – The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Often times we need to calculate age from birthdate. Follow the link below to learn how this can be done in SPSS.