Many students are unaware they can cite studies that are in preparation or submitted for publication. The folks from the awesome APA Style blog[zotpressInText item=”{5TXANH68}”] walk us through the process.

Imagine you are writing a paper on a cutting-edge topic. A friend in the field passes along a manuscript on which she is working that is relevant to your work. Your advisor, on reading your draft, hands you his own manuscript, which takes a different approach to the material. He informs you that yesterday he submitted this very manuscript to a journal for publication. Then, on your favorite journal’s website, you stumble across a bunch of articles that will be published in a future issue but have yet to appear in print, all of which you would like to cite in your article. None of these sources have been published in physical books or journals, complete with page numbers, at least not yet; how do you create references for them?

The video below shows how to change tables in SPSS to comply with the APA Style.

The excerpt below is from BMJ and may be used as reference when the intention is to write research manuscripts describing pilot data.

Articles reporting pilot studies should explain the work’s wider context and explain why the term ‘pilot study’ applies. The term ‘pilot study’ should not be applied to justify reporting a small-scale study. Justifications for a pilot study include: trialling a new procedure intended for use in a larger programme of research, establishing power calculations required for a full-scale study, establishing how many patients and/or healthcare professionals can be recruited, evaluating the financial, technical, administrative or logistic feasibility of a full-scale study, including issues of data collection, protocol adherence, and questionnaire design. The sample/patient size should still be justified. The article should explain the impact that the pilot study had on decisions regarding future research.


Although they have a plural meaning, most uncountable nouns like this (including information, administration, management, advice, accommodation) are singular with no plural form. This information is very useful.Learning English | BBC World Service

Source: is information plural or singular – Google Search

We’ll once more rely on the APA Style Blog to learn how to cite works that are either in preparation or were submitted for publication. I provide below the relevant examples. Refer to the full article for more information on this topic.

Use the example below if you want to cite (APA 6th Ed.) a manuscript that is under preparation.

[alert type=”success”]

Bolin, M., & Furtado, O., Jr. (2014). The relationship between BMI and FMS performance in rural children. Manuscript in preparation.


Use the example below if you want to cite (APA 6th Ed.) a manuscript that has been submitted for publication.

[alert type=”success”]

Fontana, F. E., Furtado, O., Jr., Mazzardo, O., Hong, D., & Campos, W. (2014). Perception of obese individuals by professors teaching PETE majors. Manuscript submitted for publication.


APA Style Blog: Almost Published.

Knowing “what to capitalize” when following the APA Style is not easy. The APA Style Blog has provided a decent summary here. A related issue is how to capitalize in reference lists. For that, please visit this link.

via APA Style Blog: Do I Capitalize This Word?.

Let’s face it. Managing references is not an easy task. Whether you are writing a blog post or your doctoral dissertation, finding a way to manage your sources is critical. I particularly like Zotero for this purpose. The biggest advantage of Zotero over other options out there (Mendeley, EndNote, etc., ) is that Zotero is open source and will always be free. In this post, I will walk you through the process of searching for references online, saving them to your Zotero library, citing sources (e.g., MS Word), and generating your reference list. Enjoy!

Upon completion of this module you will able to:

  1. perform online searches to find relevant references
  2. use Zotero to organize and utilize references
  3. use MS Word 2010 to perform in-text citation and generate a list of reference

Part 1: Finding and saving your sources

Finding sound references is perhaps the most important step in writing a paper. The quality of your paper will rely heavily on this step. The best way to find up-to-date sources is to conduct an online search. Visiting Booth Library is a start. I personally prefer WWW.PUBMED.ORG *. Two other excellent tools are (a) and (b)

* PubMed should be used to find resources for the medical sciences, which does not necessarily exclude the fields of exercise science, athletic training, and physical Education. Sport Management students should use  WorldCat and /or Google Scholar.

1.1 Saving sources online (opening accounts with the services below are optional)

In this section I will demonstrate how to find relevant sources (based on your topic) and save them online for further consultation.

1.1.1 Pubmed

  • Intro tour 
  • Save search and set email alerts [video]
  • Save search in collections [video]

1.1.2 WorldCat Intro tour [video]

Signing up for a WorldCat account is fast and easy, and requires only an e-mail address. A WorldCat account lets you:

Part 2: Zotero (opening an account with Zotero is required)

2.1 Getting Started

Download page (includes the latest version of Zotero Standalone and browser connectors)

Support and Video tutorials

2.2 The Basics

Below you will find the most important features of Zotero. For further information and technical help visit the following link:

2.3 What is Zotero?

Zotero [zoh-TAIR-oh] is a free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share your research sources. It lives right where you do your work—in the web browser itself.

Before learning what Zotero does, it is important to know what it is. Zotero is an extension for the Firefox web-browser. It runs in its own pane within Firefox, separately from web pages.

2.4 How do I install it?

Zotero is installed by visiting and clicking the download button on the page. For this class you will be going over the Zotero STANDALONE (not the Firefox extension).

To download the Zotero extension for Firefox follow these steps:

  • Visit the Zotero website ( )
  • Click on the “Download Button”
  • You will be presented with two options (Zotero for Firefox & Zotero Standalone)
  • Click on “Zotero 3.0 for Windows”**
  • Install the application on your computer
  • Next, you need to install a browser extension (optional). This will allow you to save items from the web direct into your Zotero Library. Simply click on the icon of the browser that you are using to access the Internet. Each extension is browser-specific; for example, do not install an extension for Firefox while using Chrome.
  • Finally, you need to sync your Zotero Local Library with your Zotero Virtual Library
  • While in Zotero Standalone, click on “Tools” then “Options”
  • On the dialog box, select the “Sync” tab from the top
  • Under “Zotero Sync Server”, fill in with your Zotero Account information (same information used to access your Zotero Virtual Library).

** Click Mac OS X under “client” if using Mac computer.

2.5 What does Zotero do?

Zotero is, at the most basic level, a citation manager. It is designed to store, manage, and cite bibliographic references, such as books and articles. In Zotero, each of these references constitutes an item.

2.6 What kind of items are there?

Every item contains different metadata, depending on what type it is. Items can be everything from books, articles, and documents to web pages, artwork, films, sound recordings, bills, cases, or statutes, among many others.

2.7 What can I do with the items?

Items appear in the center column. The metadata for that item is in the right column. This includes titles, creators, publishers, dates, and any other data needed to cite the item.

2.8 Collections [video]

The left column includes My Library, which contains all items. Clicking the button above the left column creates a new collection, a folder into which items relating to a specific project or topic can be placed. Collections can also contain sub-collections. Items in collections are aliases, not duplicates.

2.9 Tags [video1 ] [video 2]

Items can be assigned tags. Tags are named by the user. An item can be assigned as many tags as is needed. Tags are added or removed with the tag selector at the bottom of the left column or through the Tags tab of any item in the right column.

2.10 Searches [video]

Quick searches show items whose metadata, tags, or content match the search terms and are performed from the Zotero toolbar. Clicking the spyglass icon to the left of the search box opens the Advanced Search window, allowing for more complex or narrow searches.

2.11 Saved Searches

Advanced searches can be saved in the left column. They are similar to collections, but will update with new matching items automatically.

2.12 Attachments

Items can have notes, files, and links attached to them. These attachments appear in the middle column underneath their parent item. Attachments can be shown or hidden by clicking the arrow or plus sign next to their parent item.

2.13 Notes [video]

Rich-text notes can be attached to any item through the Notes tab in the right column. They can be edited in the right column or in their own window. Click the New Standalone Note button in the toolbar to create a note without attaching it to an item.

2.14 Files

Any type of file can be attached to an item. Items such as the PDF of an article or images of artwork can be opened in the Firefox window, while other file-types open in external programs. Attach files through the Attachments tab in the right column, with the New Item button in the Zotero toolbar, or by drag-and-drop.

2.15 Links & Snapshots

Web pages can be attached to any item as a link or a snapshot. A link simply opens the website online. A snapshot is a locally stored copy of a web page as it was when it was saved, available without an internet connection.

2.16 Capturing Items

Because Zotero runs within Firefox, it is simple to create new items from information available on the internet. If a capture icon appears in the address bar, Zotero can automatically create an item of the appropriate type and populate the metadata fields. If a full-text PDF is available, it will be automatically attached to the item.

2.17 Single or Multiple Captures

If the capture icon is a book, article, image or other single item, clicking on it will add the item to the current collection in Zotero. If the capture icon is a folder, the web page contains multiple items. Clicking it will open a dialog box from which items can be selected and saved to Zotero.

2.18 Saving a Web Page

Clicking the Create New Item from Current Page button in the Zotero toolbar creates a Web Page item and saves the page as an attached snapshot. This saves the page itself as an item, not any bibliographic sources on the page.

2.19 Add Item by Identifier

Zotero can add items automatically using ISBN number, Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or PubMed ID. This is done by clicking the Add Item by Identifier button in the Zotero toolbar, typing in the ID number and clicking OK.

2.20 Manually Adding Items [video]

Items can be added manually by clicking the New Item button in the Zotero toolbar, then selecting the appropriate item type. Metadata can then be added by hand in the right column. Apart from the versatility this provides, it is important for adding primary documents.

2.21 Citing Items

Zotero uses Citation Style Language (CSL) to properly format citations in many different bibliographic styles. Zotero supports all the major styles (Chicago, MLA, APA, Vancouver, etc.) as well as a great many journal-specific styles. If Zotero does not currently support a style you need, visit requesting styles for help adding it.

2.22 Word Processor Integration

Zotero’s Word and OpenOffice plugins allow users to insert citations directly from their word processing software. This makes citing multiple pages, sources, or otherwise customizing citations a breeze. In-text citations, footnotes and endnotes are all supported.

2.23 Automatic Bibliographies

Using the word processor plugins makes it possible to switch citation styles for the entire document at once or automatically generate a bibliography from the items cited.

2.24 Manual Bibliographies

Zotero can insert citations and bibliographies into any text field or program. Simply drag-and-drop items, use Quick Copy to send citations to the clipboard, or export them directly to a file.

2.25 Syncing

Use Zotero at multiple computers with syncing. Library items are synced through the Zotero server, while file syncing uses your own WebDAV service to sync files such as PDFs, images or audio/video.

Part 3: APA Citation Style Guide, 6th ed.

(For more detailed information see Publication Manual Chapter 6, pp 174-179) or by clicking here.

APA Style gives prominence to the date of a publication. In-text citations use the author’s last name and the date, separated by a comma, as a brief reference in the text of the article to refer the reader to complete information in the reference list.

Given the following source:

Austin, J. H., & Clark, J. (1998). Zen and the brain: Toward an understanding of meditation and consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Watch the video below to learn how to perform in-text citation using Zotero

[video_lightbox_youtube video_id=”o8gaG59rr9M&rel=false” width=”640″ height=”485″ auto_thumb=”1″]

… and using short quotation:

use the format below if the author(s) is(are) NOT mentioned in the narrative

There is evidence that “meditation is a way to consciousness” (Austin & Clark, 1998, p. 39).

use the format below if the author(s) is(are) mentioned in the narrative

Austin and Clark (1998) believe that “meditation is a way to consciousness” (p. 39).

… and using paraphrase

use the format below if the author(s) is(are) NOT mentioned in the narrative

There is evidence that one can reach consciousness through meditation (Austin & Clark, 1998).

use the format below if the author(s) is(are) mentioned in the narrative

Austin and Clark (1998) believe that one can reach consciousness through meditation.

Given the following sources:

Parker, J., & Smith, V. (2000). The atmosphere. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Furtado, O., Gallagher, J., & Fontana, F. (2012) Motor skills and physical activity. Quest, 63, 200-210.

Gallagher, J., Furtado, O., Fontana, F., Smith, J., Silva, C., & Campos, W. (2011) Obesity levels among US children. Quest, 64, 100-110.

TWO authors: Always use both names every time they are referred to in the text. Use the ampersand (&) to connect the names in the parentheses, but spell out “and” in the running text.

There is evidence that “the sky is blue” (Parker & Smith, 2000, p. 11)


Parker and Smith (1998) believe that the sky is not red.

THREE to FIVE authors: Cite all the authors in text the first time a reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include ONLY the surname of the first author followed by et al.

First reference:

Furtado, Gallagher, and Fontana (2012) stated that “motor skill development is key to physical activity participation (p. 11).


Research shows a positive association between motor skill development and physical activity participation (Furtado, Gallagher, & Fontana, 2012).

Subsequent reference:

Furtado et al. (2012) stated that….


Research shows that… (Furtado et al., 2012).

SIX or MORE authors: Cite in text only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year for the first and subsequent citations.

Gallagher et al. (2011) stated that…


According to Gallagher et al. (2011), …

Special Cases

Use the format below for group or corporate authors: Use the name of the body in the citation:

(World Bank, 1998)

The the format below in the case of unknown author: Use the first few words of the title as the reference in the text (capitalize all words in title):

(“Structuring Lawmaking”, 2002)

Author is listed as “Anonymous”. Use it as if it was the author’s name.

(Anonymous, 2003)

For exact quotations from sources without page numbers, use paragraph numbers, if available. If the paragraphs are not numbered, but there are headings, use the heading name and count the number of paragraphs after the heading for the paragraph containing the quotation. (Publication Manual, Chapter 6.05, p. 171)

(Smith, 2003, para. 1)

(Greene, 2003, Discussion, para. 4)

For citations taken from secondary sources, include the secondary source in the reference list and mention the original work in the text.

Text citation:

Goldman and Goldman’s study (as cited in Linebarger, 2001) found ….

Reference List:

Linebarger, D. L. (2001). Learning to read from television: The effects of using captions and narration. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(2), 288-298.

Long Quotation

Place direct quotations 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

Jones’s (1998) study found the following:

Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to  purchase a style manual or to ask  their teacher for help. (p. 199)

Part 4: How to Format Reference Lists (you do not have to memorize this)


(Publication Manual, Chapter 7.02)

Single author

Austin, J. H. (1998). Zen and the brain: Toward an understanding of meditation and consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Multiple authors

Calarco, M., & Atterton, P. (2009). Animal philosophy: Essential readings in continental thought. New York, NY: Continuum.

Edited Book

Ickes, W. (Ed.). (1998). Empathic accuracy. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Group or corporate author

World Bank. (2004). Gender and development in the Middle East and North Africa: women in the public sphere. Washington, DC: Author.

Chapter or essay in book

Herrmann, R. K. (2002). Linking theory to evidence in international relations. In W. Carlsnaes, T. Risse, & B. A. Simmons (Eds.), Handbook of international relations (pp. 119-136). London, England: Sage.

Article from a reference book

Chen, J. Q. (2003). Intelligence: Multiple intelligences. In J. Guthrie (Ed.), Encyclopedia of education (pp. 1198-1201). New York, NY: Macmillan.

If there are no page numbers, the entry title is sufficient. For an entry in a reference work with no author, place the entry title in the author position. (Publication Manual, Chapter 7.02)


(Publication Manual, Chapter 7.01)

A new element to journal article citations with the 6th edition of the Publication Manual is the addition of the DOI (digital object identifier), which provides a persistent way of accessing digital information. See DOI System for a detailed explanation and to resolve a DOI name. If the DOI is not provided in the online database, online journal, or article, try CrossRef’s free DOI look-up. Note: not all articles have DOIs. Do not include a period at the end of the citation as it may be interpreted as part of the DOI.

Article in a journal (one author)

Oware, M. (2009). A “Man’s Woman”? Contradictory messages in the songs of female rappers, 1992-2000. Journal of Black Studies, 39(5), 786-802. doi:10.1177/0021934707302454

Article in a journal (up to seven authors)

Ko, C. H., Yen, J. Y., Liua, S. C., Huanga, C. F., & Yen, C. F. (2009). The associations between aggressive behaviors and internet addiction and online activities in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 6, 598-605. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.11.011

Article in a journal (more than seven authors)

Burger, J., Gochfeld, M., Jeitner, C., Burke, S., Stamm, T., Snigaroff, R., … Weston, J. (2007). Mercury levels and potential risk from subsistence foods from the Aleutians. Science of The Total Environment, 384, 93-105. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.05.004

When authors number eight or more, include the first six names, then three ellipses, and then the last author’s name. (Publication Manual, Chapter 7.01.2)

Article in a journal (advanced publication)

Levskaya, A., Weiner, O. D., Lim, W. A., & Voigt, C. A. (2009). Spatiotemporal control of cell signalling using a light-switchable protein interaction. Nature. Advance online publication. doi:10.1038/nature08446

Online-only supplemental material for articles

Chandler, D. (2009). Liquids: Condensed, disordered, and sometimes complex. [Supplemental material]. PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of the United States of America, 106, 15111–15112. doi:10.1073/pnas.0908029106

If no author is given, move the title and bracketed description to the author position. (Publication Manual, Chapter 7.01.15)

Article in a popular magazine

Henry, W. A., III (1990, April 9). Beyond the melting pot. Time, 135(4), 28-31.

Article in a newspaper

Young, J. (2003, February 14). Prozac campus: More students seek counseling and take psychiatric medication. The Chronicle of Higher Education, pp. A37-38.

If the article was found through the newspaper’s website, include “Retrieved from” and the URL of the home page. (Publication Manual, 7.01.11)



APA Style Blog: 

A very useful feature has been added to Zotero. Now you can check for duplicates sources and merge them into a single one. Follow the link below for more information.

As you build your Zotero library, you might introduce a few duplicated items. E.g. you could have saved the same item twice from a webpage, or imported items already in your library. Fortunately, Zotero can help you identify possible duplicates and allow you to merge them.

via Zotero.

When there is no author for a web page, the title moves to the first position of the reference entry. An example can be found below.

[alert type=”success”] New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved March 21, 2001, from [/alert]

In the example above, cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title.: (“New Child Vaccine,” 2001).

[alert type=”danger”] Note: Use the full title of the web page if it is short for the parenthetical citation. Articles found on the web, like the example above, are not italicized in the reference entry and are not italicized but enclosed in quotations in the in-text citation, just like a newspaper or magazine article. Reports found on the web would be italicized in the reference list, as in Publication Manual (6th ed.) Examples 31, 32, and 33 on pp. 205–206. They would also be italicized in the in-text citation, just like a book. [/alert]

via How do you reference a web page that lists no author?.

Reporting research results in a manuscript is not an easy task. The American Psychological Association has its own requirements. Dr. Kahn (Illinois State University) provides a summary of such requirements in his webpage.

For further information, visit the APA Style Manual’s site here.

via Reporting Statistics in APA Style.